Rosa Parks


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Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American civil
rights activist whom the U.S. Congress later called "Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights
Movement".

On December 1, 1955, Parks became famous for refusing to obey bus driver James Blake's order
that she give up her seat to make room for a white passenger. This action of civil disobedience
started the
Montgomery Bus Boycott, which is one of the largest movements against racial
segregation. In addition, this launched Martin Luther King, Jr., who was involved with the
boycott, to prominence in the civil rights movement. She has had a lasting legacy worldwide.

Early years

Rosa Parks was born as Rosa Louise McCauley in Tuskegee, Alabama on February 4, 1913, to
James McCauley and Leona Edwards, respectively a carpenter and a teacher, and was of
African-American, Cherokee-Creek, and Scots-Irish ancestry. Rosa Parks's great grandfather was
a Scotch-Irishman. She was small, even for a child, and she suffered poor health and had
chronic tonsillitis. When her parents separated, she moved with her mother to Pine Level, just
outside Montgomery, Alabama. There she grew up on a farm with her maternal grandparents,
mother, and younger brother Sylvester, and began her lifelong membership in the African
Methodist Episcopal Church. She was
homeschooled by her mother until she was eleven, then
enrolled at the Industrial School for Girls in Montgomery where she took academic and
vocational courses. Parks then went on to a laboratory school set up by the
Alabama State
Teachers College for Negroes for secondary education but was forced to drop out to care for
her grandmother, and later for her mother, after they became ill.

Under Jim Crow laws, black and white people were segregated in virtually every aspect of
daily life in the South, including public transportation. Bus and train companies didn't provide
separate vehicles for the different races but did enforce seating policies that allocated
separate sections for blacks and whites. School bus transportation, however, was unavailable in
any form for black schoolchildren in the South. Parks recalled going to elementary school in Pine
Level, where school buses took white students to their new school and black students had to
walk to theirs: "I'd see the bus pass every day... But to me, that was a way of life; we'd no
choice but to accept what was the custom. The bus was among the first ways I realised there
was a black world and a white world."

Although Parks' autobiography recounts that some of her earliest memories are of the kindness
of white strangers, her situation made it impossible to ignore racism. When the Ku Klux Klan
marched down the street in front of her house, Parks recalls her grandfather guarding the front
door with a shotgun. The Montgomery Industrial School, founded and staffed by white
northerners for black children, was burned twice by arsonists, and its faculty was ostracised by
the white community.
In 1932, Rosa married Raymond Parks, a barber from Montgomery, at her mother's house.
Raymond was a member of the NAACP, at the time collecting money to support the
Scottsboro Boys, a group of black men falsely accused of raping two white women. After her
marriage, Rosa took numerous jobs, ranging from domestic worker to hospital aide. At her
husband's urging, she finished her high school studies in 1933, at a time when less than 7% of
African Americans had a high school diploma. Despite the Jim Crow laws that made political
participation by black people difficult, she succeeded in registering to vote on her third try.

In December 1943, Parks became active in the Civil Rights Movement, joined the Montgomery
chapter of the NAACP, and was elected volunteer secretary to its president, Edgar Nixon. Of
her position, she later said, "I was the only woman there, and they needed a secretary, and I
was too timid to say no." She continued as secretary until 1957. In the 1940s, Parks and her
husband were also members of the Voters' League. Sometime soon after 1944, she held a brief
job at Maxwell Air Force Base, a federally owned area where racial segregation wasn't
allowed, and rode on an integrated trolley. Speaking to her biographer, Parks noted, "You
might just say Maxwell opened my eyes up." Parks also worked as a housekeeper and
seamstress for a white couple,
Clifford and Virginia Durr. The politically liberal Durrs became her
friends and encouraged Parks to attend—and eventually helped sponsor her—at the
Highlander Folk School, an education centre for workers' rights and racial equality in Monteagle,
Tennessee, in the summer of 1955.

Like many black people, Parks was deeply moved by the brutal murder of Emmett Till in August
1955. On November 27, 1955 — only four days before she refused to give up her seat—she later
recalled that she'd attended a mass meeting in Montgomery which focused on this case as
well as the recent murders of George W. Lee and Lamar Smith. The featured speaker at the
meeting was
T.R.M. Howard, a black civil rights leader from Mississippi who headed the
Regional Council of Negro Leadership. People also said that Rosa Parks was "Sweet and soft
spoken but made a statement that screamed so loud."

Civil rights activism

Events leading up to boycott

In 1944, athletic star Jackie Robinson took a similar stand in a confrontation with a United States
Army officer in Fort Hood, Texas, refusing to move to the back of a bus. Robinson was brought
before a court-martial, which acquitted him. The NAACP had accepted and litigated other
cases before, such as that of Irene Morgan ten years earlier, which resulted in a victory in the U.
S. Supreme Court on Commerce Clause grounds. That victory, however, overturned state
segregation laws only insofar as they applied to travel in interstate commerce, such as
interstate bus travel. Black activists had begun to build a case around the arrest of a 15-year-
old girl, Claudette Colvin, a student at Booker T. Washington High School in Montgomery. On
March 2, 1955, Colvin was handcuffed, arrested and forcibly removed from a public bus when
she refused to give up her seat to a white man. She claimed that her constitutional rights were
being violated. At the time, Colvin was active in the NAACP's Youth Council, a group to which
Rosa Parks served as Advisor.

Colvin recollected, "Mrs. Parks said, 'do what is right.'" Parks was raising money for Colvin's
defence, but when E.D. Nixon learned that Colvin was pregnant, it was decided that Colvin
was an unsuitable symbol for their cause. Soon after her arrest she'd conceived a child with a
much older married man, a moral transgression that scandalised the deeply religious black
community. Strategists believed that the segregationist white press would use Colvin's
pregnancy to undermine any boycott. The NAACP also had considered, but rejected, earlier
protesters deemed unable or unsuitable to withstand the pressures of cross-examination in a
legal challenge to racial segregation laws. Colvin was also known to engage in verbal
outbursts and cursing. Many of the legal charges against Colvin were dropped. A boycott and
legal case never materialised from the Colvin case, and legal strategists continued to seek a
complainant beyond reproach.

In Montgomery, the first four rows of bus seats were reserved for white people. Buses had
"coloured" sections for black people—who made up more than 75% of the bus system's riders—
generally in the rear of the bus. These sections were not fixed in size but were determined by
the placement of a movable sign. Black people also could sit in the middle rows, until the
white section was full. Then they'd to move to seats in the rear, stand, or, if there was no room,
leave the bus. Black people were not allowed to sit across the aisle from white people. The
driver also could move the "coloured" section sign, or remove it altogether. If white people
were already sitting in the front, black people could board to pay the fare, but then had to
disembark and reenter through the rear door. There were times when the bus departed
before the black customers who had paid made it to the back entrance.

For years, the black community had complained that the situation was unfair, and Parks was no
exception: "My resisting being mistreated on the bus didn't begin with that particular arrest...I
did a lot of walking in Montgomery." Parks had her first run-in on the public bus on a rainy day in
1943, when the bus driver, James Blake, demanded that she get off the bus and reenter
through the back door. As she began to exit by the front door, she dropped her purse. Parks sat
down for a moment in a seat for white passengers to pick up her purse. The bus driver was
enraged and barely let her step off the bus before speeding off. Rosa walked more than five
miles (8 km) home in the rain.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

After a day at work at Montgomery Fair department store, Parks boarded the Cleveland
Avenue bus at around 6 p.m., Thursday, December 1, 1955, in downtown Montgomery. She
paid her fare and sat in an empty seat in the first row of back seats reserved for blacks in the
"coloured" section, which was near the middle of the bus and directly behind the ten seats
reserved for white passengers. Initially, she hadn't noticed that the bus driver was the same
man, James F. Blake, who had left her in the rain in 1943. As the bus travelled along its regular
route, all of the white-only seats in the bus filled up. The bus reached the third stop in front of
the Empire Theatre, and several white passengers boarded.

In 1900, Montgomery had passed a city ordinance for the purpose of segregating passengers
by race. Conductors were given the power to assign seats to accomplish that purpose;
however, no passengers would be required to move or give up their seat and stand if the bus
was crowded and no other seats were available. Over time and by custom, however,
Montgomery bus drivers had adopted the practise of requiring black riders to move whenever
there were no white only seats left.

So, following standard practise, bus driver Blake noted that the front of the bus was filled with
white passengers and there were two or three men standing, and thus moved the "coloured"
section sign behind Parks and demanded that four black people give up their seats in the
middle section so that the white passengers could sit. Years later, in recalling the events of the
day, Parks said, "When that white driver stepped back toward us, when he waved his hand
and ordered us up and out of our seats, I felt a determination cover my body like a quilt on a
winter night."

By Parks' account, Blake said, "Y'all better make it light on yourselves and let me have those
seats." Three of them complied. Parks said, "The driver wanted us to stand up, the four of us. We
didn't move at the beginning, but he says, 'Let me have these seats.' And the other three
people moved, but I didn't." The black man sitting next to her gave up his seat. Parks moved,
but toward the window seat; she didn't get up to move to the newly repositioned coloured
section. Blake then said, "Why don't you stand up?" Parks responded, "I don't think I should have
to stand up." Blake called the police to arrest Parks. When recalling the incident for Eyes on the
Prize, a 1987 public television series on the Civil Rights Movement, Parks said, "When he saw me
still sitting, he asked if I was going to stand up, and I said, 'No, I'm not.' And he said, 'Well, if you
don't stand up, I'm going to have to call the police and have you arrested.' I said, 'You may do
that.'"

During a 1956 radio interview with Sydney Rogers in West Oakland several months after her
arrest, when asked why she'd decided not to vacate her bus seat, Parks said, "I would have to
know for once and for all what rights I'd as a human being and a citizen of Montgomery,
Alabama."

She also detailed her motivation in her autobiography, My Story »

When Parks refused to give up her seat, a police officer arrested her. As the officer took her
away, she recalled that she asked, "Why do you push us around?" The officer's response as she
remembered it was, "I don't know, but the law's the law, and you're under arrest." She later
said, "I only knew that, as I was being arrested, that it was the very last time that I'd ever ride in
humiliation of this kind."

Parks was charged with a violation of Chapter 6, Section 11 segregation law of the
Montgomery City code, even though she technically hadn't taken up a white-only seat—she
had been in a coloured section. E.D. Nixon and Clifford Durr bailed Parks out of jail the evening
of December 2.

That evening, Nixon conferred with Alabama State College professor Jo Ann Robinson about
Parks' case. Robinson, a member of the Women's Political Council (WPC), stayed up all night
mimeographing over 35,000 handbills announcing a bus boycott. The Women's Political Council
was the first group to officially endorse the boycott.

On Sunday, December 4, 1955, plans for the Montgomery Bus Boycott were announced at
black churches in the area, and a front-page article in The Montgomery Advertiser helped
spread the word. At a church rally that night, attendees unanimously agreed to continue the
boycott until they were treated with the level of courtesy they expected, until black drivers
were hired, and until seating in the middle of the bus was handled on a first-come basis.

Four days later, Parks was tried on charges of disorderly conduct and violating a local
ordinance. The trial lasted 30 minutes. Parks was found guilty and fined $10, plus $4 in court
costs. Parks appealed her conviction and formally challenged the legality of racial segregation.
In a 1992 interview with National Public Radio's Lynn Neary, Parks recalled:

On Monday, December 5, 1955, after the success of the one-day boycott, a group of 16 to 18
people gathered at the Mt. Zion AME Zion Church to discuss boycott strategies. The group
agreed that a new organisation was needed to lead the boycott effort if it were to continue.
Rev. Ralph David Abernathy suggested the name "Montgomery Improvement Association"
(MIA). The name was adopted, and the MIA was formed. Its members elected as their
president a relative newcomer to Montgomery, a young and mostly unknown minister of
Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

That Monday night, 50 leaders of the African American community gathered to discuss the
proper actions to be taken in response to Parks' arrest. E.D. Nixon said, "My God, look what
segregation has put in my hands!" Parks was the ideal plaintiff for a test case against city and
state segregation laws. While the 15-year-old Claudette Colvin, unwed and pregnant, had
been deemed unacceptable to be the centre of a civil rights mobilisation, King stated that,
"Mrs. Parks, on the other hand, was regarded as one of the finest citizens of Montgomery—not
one of the finest Negro citizens, but one of the finest citizens of Montgomery." Parks was
securely married and employed, possessed a quiet and dignified demeanour, and was
politically savvy.

The day of Parks' trial — Monday, December 5, 1955 — the WPC distributed the 35,000 leaflets.
The handbill read, "We are...asking every Negro to stay off the buses Monday in protest of the
arrest and trial ... You can afford to stay out of school for one day. If you work, take a cab, or
walk. But please, children and grown-ups, don't ride the bus at all on Monday. Please stay off
the buses Monday."

It rained that day, but the black community persevered in their boycott. Some rode in
carpools, while others travelled in black-operated cabs that charged the same fare as the bus,
10 cents. Most of the remainder of the 40,000 black commuters walked, some as far as 20 miles
(30 km). In the end, the boycott lasted for 381 days. Dozens of public buses stood idle for
months, severely damaging the bus transit company's finances, until the law requiring
segregation on public buses was lifted.

Some segregationists retaliated with terrorism. Black churches were burned or dynamited.
Martin Luther King's home was bombed in the early morning hours of January 30, 1956, and E.D.
Nixon's home was also attacked. However, the black community's bus boycott marked one of
the largest and most successful mass movements against racial segregation. It sparked many
other protests, and it catapulted King to the forefront of the Civil Rights Movement.

Through her role in sparking the boycott, Rosa Parks played an important part in
internationalising the awareness of the plight of African Americans and the civil rights struggle.
King wrote in his 1958 book Stride Toward Freedom that Parks' arrest was the precipitating
factor, rather than the cause, of the protest: "The cause lay deep in the record of similar
injustices.... Actually, no one can understand the action of Mrs. Parks unless he realises that
eventually the cup of endurance runs over, and the human personality cries out, 'I can take it
no longer.'"

The Montgomery bus boycott was also the inspiration for the bus boycott in the township of
Alexandria, Eastern Cape of South Africa which was one of the key events in the radicalisation
of the black majority of that country under the leadership of the African National Congress.

Browder v. Gayle

Immediately after the initiation of the bus boycott, legal strategists began to discuss the need
for a federal lawsuit to challenge city and state bus segregation laws, and approximately two
months after the boycott began, they reconsidered Claudette Colvin's case. Attorneys Fred
Gray, E.D. Nixon and Clifford Durr (a white lawyer who, with his wife, Virginia, was an activist in
the Civil Rights Movement and a former employer of Parks) searched for the ideal case law to
challenge the constitutional legitimacy of city and state bus segregation laws. Parks' case
wasn't used as the basis for the federal lawsuit because, as a criminal case, it would have had
to make its way through the state criminal appeals process before a federal appeal could
have been filed. City and state officials could have delayed a final rendering for years.
Furthermore, attorney Durr believed it possible that the outcome would merely have been the
vacating of Parks' conviction, with no changes in segregation laws.

Gray researched for a better lawsuit, consulting with NAACP legal counsels Robert Carter and
Thurgood Marshall, who would later become U.S. Solicitor General and a U.S. Supreme Court
justice. Gray approached Aurelia Browder, Susie McDonald, Claudette Colvin and Mary Louise
Smith, all women who had had disputes involving the Montgomery bus system the previous
year. They all agreed to become plaintiffs in a civil action law suit. Browder was a
Montgomery housewife, Gayle the mayor of Montgomery. On February 1, 1956, the case of
Browder v. Gayle was filed in U.S. District Court by Fred Gray. It was Browder v. Gayle that
brought segregation to an end on public buses.

On June 19, 1956, the U.S. District Court's three-judge panel ruled that Section 301 (31a, 31b and
31c) of Title 48, Code of Alabama, 1940, as amended, and Sections 10 and 11 of Chapter 6 of
the Code of the City of Montgomery, 1952, "deny and deprive plaintiffs and other Negro
citizens similarly situated of the equal protection of the laws and due process of law secured by
the Fourteenth Amendment" (Browder v. Gayle, 1956). The court essentially decided that the
precedent of Brown v. Board of Education (1954) could be applied to Browder v. Gayle. On
November 13, 1956, the United States Supreme Court outlawed racial segregation on buses,
deeming it unconstitutional. The court order arrived in Montgomery, Alabama, on December
20, 1956, and the bus boycott ended the next day. However, more violence erupted following
the court order, as snipers fired into buses and into King's home, and terrorists threw bombs into
churches and into the homes of many church ministers, including Martin Luther King Jr.,'s friend
Ralph Abernathy.

Later years

After her arrest, Parks became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement but suffered hardships as a
result. She lost her job at the department store, and her husband quit his job after his boss
forbade him from talking about his wife or the legal case. Parks travelled and spoke
extensively. In 1957, Raymond and Rosa Parks left Montgomery for Hampton, Virginia; mostly
because she was unable to find work, but also because of disagreements with King and other
leaders of Montgomery's struggling civil rights movement. In Hampton, she found a job as a
hostess in an inn at black Hampton Institute. Later that year, after the urging of her brother and
sister-in-law, Sylvester & Daisy, Rosa, her husband Raymond, and her mother Leona McCauley,
moved to Detroit, Michigan.

Parks worked as a seamstress until 1965 when African-American U.S. Representative John
Conyers hired her as a secretary and receptionist for his congressional office in Detroit. She held
this position until she retired in 1988. In a telephone interview with CNN on October 24 2005,
Conyers recalled, "You treated her with deference because she was so quiet, so serene—just a
very special person.... There is only one Rosa Parks." Later in life, Parks also served as a member
of the Board of Advocates of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.

Rosa Parks and Elaine Eason Steele co-founded the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self
Development in February 1987, in honour of Rosa's husband, who died from cancer in 1977. The
institute runs the "Pathways to Freedom" bus tours, which introduce young people to important
civil rights and Underground Railroad sites throughout the country. In 1992, Parks published Rosa
Parks: My Story, an autobiography aimed at younger readers which details her life leading up
to her decision not to give up her seat. In 1995, she published her memoirs, titled Quiet
Strength, which focuses on the role that her faith had played in her life.

On August 30, 1994, Joseph Skipper, an African-American drug addict, attacked 81-year-old
Parks in her home. The incident sparked outrage throughout America. After his arrest, Skipper
said that he hadn't known he was in Parks' home but recognised her after entering. Skipper
asked, "Hey, aren't you Rosa Parks?" to which she replied, "Yes." She handed him $3 when he
demanded money, and an additional $50 when he demanded more. Before fleeing, Skipper
struck Parks in the face. Skipper was arrested and charged with various breaking and entering
offences against Parks and other neighbourhood victims. He admitted guilt and, on August 8,
1995, was sentenced to eight to 15 years in prison.

A comedic scene in the 2002 film Barbershop featured a cantankerous barber, played by
Cedric the Entertainer, arguing with co-workers and shop patrons that other African Americans
before Parks had resisted giving up their seats in defiance of Jim Crow laws, and that she'd
received undeserved fame because of her status as an NAACP secretary. Activists Jesse
Jackson and Al Sharpton launched a boycott against the film, contending it was "disrespectful",
but NAACP president Kweisi Mfume stated he thought the controversy was "overblown." The
scene also offended Parks, who boycotted the NAACP 2003 Image Awards ceremony, which
Cedric hosted. "Barbershop" received nominations in four awards categories that, including a
"Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture" nomination for Cedric. He didn't win in that
category, however, but won an award for his work as a supporting actor in the television series
The Proud Family.

Lawsuits

In March 1999, a lawsuit was filed on Parks' behalf against American hip-hop duo OutKast and
LaFace Records, claiming that the group had illegally used Rosa Parks' name without her
permission for the song "Rosa Parks", the most successful radio single of OutKast's 1998 album
Aquemini. The song's chorus, which Parks' legal defence felt was disrespectful to Parks, is as
follows: "Ah ha, hush that fuss / Everybody move to the back of the bus / Do you want to bump
and slump with us / We the type of people make the club get crunk."

The case was dismissed in November 1999 by U.S. District Court Judge Barbara Hackett. In
August 2000, Parks hired attorney Johnnie Cochran to help her appeal the district court's
decision. Cochran argued that the song didn't have First Amendment protection because,
although its title carried Parks' name, its lyrics were not about her. However, U.S. District Judge
Barbara Hackett upheld OutKast's right to use Parks' name in November 1999, and Parks took
the case to the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, where some charges were remanded for
further trial.

Parks' attorneys and caretaker, Elaine Steele, refiled in August 2004, and named BMG, Arista
Records and LaFace Records as the defendants, asking for $5 billion in damages. (Also named
as defendants were several parties not directly connected to the songs, including Barnes &
Noble and Borders Group for selling the songs, and Gregory Dark and Braddon Mendelson, the
director and producer, respectively, of the 1998 music video. The judge dismissed the music
video producers from the case by the reason of "fraudulent joinder," as these defendants had
no connection to the case and there was no justifiable reason for the plaintiff's attorneys to
add them to the lawsuit.)

In October 2004, U.S. District Judge George Caram Steeh appointed Dennis Archer, a former
mayor of Detroit and Michigan Supreme Court justice, as guardian of legal matters for Parks
after her family expressed concerns that her caretakers and her lawyer was pursuing the case
based on their own financial interest. "My auntie would never, ever go to this length to hurt
some young artists trying to make it in the world," Parks' niece Rhea McCauley said in an
Associated Press interview. "As a family, our fear is that during her last days Auntie Rosa will be
surrounded by strangers trying to make money off of her name."

The lawsuit was settled April 15, 2005. In the settlement agreement, OutKast and their
producer and recorded labels paid Parks an undisclosed cash settlement and agreed to work
with the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development in creating educational
programs about the life of Rosa Parks. The record labels and OutKast admitted to no
wrongdoing. It isn't known whether Parks' legal fees were paid for from her settlement money
or by the record companies.

Death and funeral

Rosa Parks resided in Detroit until she died at the age of ninety-two on October 24, 2005, about
19:00 EDT, in her apartment on the east side of the city. She had been diagnosed the previous
year with progressive dementia.

City officials in Montgomery and Detroit announced on October 27 2005 that the front seats of
their city buses would be reserved with black ribbons in honour of Parks until her funeral. Parks'
coffin was flown to Montgomery and taken in a horse-drawn hearse to the St. Paul African
Methodist Episcopal (AME) church, where she lay in repose at the altar, dressed in the uniform
of a church deaconess, on October 29 2005. A memorial service was held there the following
morning, and one of the speakers, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, said that if it hadn't
been for Rosa Parks, she'd probably have never become the Secretary of State. In the evening
the casket was transported to Washington, D.C., and taken, aboard a bus similar to the one in
which she made her protest, to lie in honour in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda (making her the first
woman and second African American ever to receive this honour). An estimated 50,000
people viewed the casket there, and the event was broadcast on television on October 31
2005. This was followed by another memorial service at a different St. Paul AME church in
Washington on the afternoon of October 31 2005. For two days, she lay in repose at the
Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit.

Parks' funeral service, seven hours long, was held on Wednesday, November 2 2005, at the
Greater Grace Temple Church. After the funeral service, an honour guard from the Michigan
National Guard laid the U.S. flag over the casket and carried it to a horse-drawn hearse, which
had been intended to carry it, in daylight, to the cemetery. As the hearse passed the
thousands of people who had turned out to view the procession, many clapped and released
white balloons. Rosa was interred between her husband and mother at Detroit's Woodlawn
Cemetery in the chapel's mausoleum. (The chapel was renamed the Rosa L. Parks Freedom
Chapel just after her death.) Parks had previously prepared and placed a headstone on the
selected location with the inscription "Rosa L. Parks, wife, 1913–."

Awards and honours

Parks received most of her national accolades very late in life, with relatively few awards and
honours being given to her until many decades after the Montgomery Bus Boycott. In 1979,
the National Association for the Advancement of coloured People awarded Parks the
Spingarn
Medal, its highest honour, and she received the Martin Luther King Jr. Award the next year. She
was inducted into the Michigan Women's Hall of Fame in 1983 for her achievements in civil
rights. In 1990, she was called at the last moment to be part of the group welcoming
Nelson
Mandela, who had just been released from his imprisonment in South Africa. Upon spotting her
in the reception line, Mandela called out her name and, hugging her, said, "You sustained me
while I was in prison all those years."

On September 9, 1996, President Bill Clinton presented Parks with the
Presidential Medal of
Freedom, the highest honour given by the U.S. Executive branch. In 1998, she became the first
recipient of the International Freedom Conductor Award given by the National Underground
Railroad Freedom centre. The next year, Parks was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal,
the highest award given by the U.S.

Legislative branch and also received the Detroit-Windsor International Freedom Festival
Freedom Award. Parks was a guest of President Bill Clinton during his 1999 State of the Union
Address. Also that year, Time magazine named Parks one of the 20 most influential and iconic
figures of the twentieth century. In 2000, her home state awarded her the Alabama Academy
of honour, as well as the first Governor's Medal of honour for Extraordinary Courage. She was
also awarded two dozen honorary doctorates from universities worldwide, and was made an
honorary member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated. The Rosa Parks Library and
Museum on the campus of Troy University in Montgomery, was dedicated to her on December
1, 2000. It is located on the corner where Parks boarded the famed bus. The most popular
items in the museum are the interactive bus arrest of Mrs. Parks and a sculpture of Parks sitting
on a bus bench. The documentary Mighty Times: The Legacy of Rosa Parks received a 2002
nomination for Academy Award for Documentary Short Subject. She also collaborated that
year in a TV movie of her life starring Angela Bassett.

On October 28 2005, the House of Representatives approved a resolution passed the previous
day by the United States Senate to honour Parks by allowing her body to lie in honour in the U.
S. Capitol Rotunda. . Since the founding of the practise of lying in state in the Rotunda in 1852,
Parks was the 31st person, the first woman, the first American who hadn't been a U.S.
Government official, and the second non-government official (after Frenchman Pierre L'Enfant).
She was also the second black person to lie in honour, after Jacob Chestnut, one of the two
United States Capitol Police officers who were killed in the 1998 Capitol shooting. The 30th and
32nd persons so honoured were former presidents Ronald Reagan and Gerald Ford,
respectively.

On October 30 2005, President George W. Bush issued a proclamation ordering that all flags on
U.S. public areas both within the country and abroad be flown at half-staff on the day of Parks'
funeral. Metro Transit in King County, Washington placed stickers dedicating the first forward-
facing seat of all its buses in Parks' memory shortly after her death, and the American Public
Transportation Association declared December 1, 2005, the 50th anniversary of her arrest, to be
a "National Transit Tribute to Rosa Parks Day". On that anniversary, President George W. Bush
signed H. R. 4145, directing that a statue of Parks be placed in the United States Capitol's
National Statuary Hall. In signing the resolution directing the Joint Commission on the Library to
do so, the President stated: »

On February 5, 2006, at Super Bowl XL, played at Detroit's Ford Field, Coretta Scott King and
Parks, who had been a long-time resident of "The Motor City", were remembered and
honoured by a moment of silence. It was noted that the honour was to show respect for two
women who had "helped make the nation as a whole great." The Super Bowl was dedicated
to their memory.

As part of an effort to shed the image left after the disastrous 1967 riot, in 1976 Detroit renamed
12th Street "Rosa Parks Boulevard."

In the Los Angeles County metro rail system, the Imperial Highway/Wilmington station, where
the Blue Line connects with the Green Line, has been officially named the "
Rosa Parks Station".
Nashville, Tennessee renamed MetroCenter Boulevard (8th Avenue North) (US 41A and TN 12)
in September 2007 as Rosa L. Parks Boulevard.

Elder spokeswoman and activist for her continual example of community service and for her
lifelong commitment to civil rights and non-violent social change. She was awarded the Peace
Abbey Courage of Conscience award on September 26, 1992.
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