|J R R Tolkien -
Father of Modern Fantasy
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January
1892(1892-01-03) in Bloemfontein, Orange Free
State, South Africa and died on 2 September 1973
(aged 81)Bournemouth, England. His nationality
is recorded as being British but he was in fact
South African-born who relocated to Britain.
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was a writer, poet,
philologist, and university professor, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy
works The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.
Tolkien was Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford from 1925 to 1945,
and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature from 1945 to 1959. He was a close
friend of C. S. Lewis – they were both members of the informal literary discussion group
known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British
Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972.
After his death, Tolkien's son, Christopher, published a series of works based on his father's
extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, in addition
to The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, poems, fictional
histories, invented languages, and literary essays about an imagined and fantasy world
called Arda, and Middle-earth within it. Between 1951 and 1955 Tolkien applied the word
legendarium to the larger part of these writings.
While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success
of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings when they were published in paperback in the
United States resulted in the re-birth of the popularity of this genre of novel. This has
caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or
more precisely, high fantasy.
Tolkien's writings have inspired many other works of fantasy and have had a lasting effect
on the entire field. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of 'The 50 greatest British
writers since 1945'. Again I stress that Tolkien was in fact a South African born writer and
poet and acquired British citzenship after his birth.
Homeschool unless otherwise stipulated.